Multiplying whole numbers

Multiplication is a mathematical operation that indicates how many times a number is added to itself.

2 x 5 = 10                                        5 + 5 = 10

Multiplying two groups of 5           Adding two groups of 5





Multiplication is repeated addition.  Add repeatedly (or skip-count) to multiply

2 x 5 = 10

2 x 5 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10





Multiplicand is a number that is to be multiplied by another (the multiplier). Product is the result of multiplying two (or more) numbers, for instance, 10 is the product of 2 and 5.



Factors are the numbers that are multiplied together.

Long multiplication (traditional method)

In this method we multiply the multiplicand by each digit of the multiplier and then add up all the properly shifted results.



Step one: Multiply by ones digit to get the first partial product.

Step two: Multiply by tens digit to get the second partial product.

Step three: Multiply by hundreds digit to get the third partial product.

Step four: …

Last step: Add all partial products together to get the final product! 


In this example, we multiply by the units and the tens separately.


34 x 21 = 34 x (20 + 1) = 34 x 20 + 34 x1 =680 + 34 = 714 

The box method (partial products method) works by splitting each number into tens and units

Example:   34 = 30+4  and   21 = 20+1






34 x 21 = 600+80+30+4 = 714

Introduction to Multiplication

What is multiplication?

Properties of Multiplication

The Distributive Property


IN08     Multiplying and Dividing Whole Numbers

On a separate sheet of paper, multiply and check your answers.

Word Problems – Using Whole Numbers 

WN16    Multiplying Whole Numbers

WN44     Multiplying Wole Numbers 2

WN17    Multiplication of whole numbers word problems

WN38 Whole Numbers Multiplication 2×1

WN39 Whole Numbers Multiplication 2×2

WN40 Whole Numbers Multiplication 3×1

WN41 Whole Numbers Multiplication 3×2

WN42 Whole Numbers Multiplication 3×3

Multiply by Powers of Ten

PT21      One-Digit × Positive Powers of Ten

PT22      Two-Digits × Positive Powers of Ten 1

PT23      Two-Digits × Positive Powers of Ten 2

PT27      One-Digit × Multiples of Positive Powers of Ten

PT25      One-Digit × Multiples of Negative Powers of Ten

WN45     Multiplying Wole Numbers by multiples of 10

Multiplication properties