transformation is a change in position, shape, or size of a figure

Similar figures. Figures with the same shape. They are not necessarily the same size.

Reflection. A reflection is a flip over a line. Every point of the original figure is the same distance from this line as is the corresponding point of the reflected image. Every reflection has a mirror line.
A reflection of an “R” is a backward “R”.



Slide/Glide. To translate an object means to move it without rotating or reflecting it. Every translation has a direction and a distance.



Rotation.  A rotation is a turn of a figure around a point. The point can be on or in the figure, or outside the figure.





A dilation is a transformation that changes the size of the shape. The new image is similar (same shape) but different size. The new shape is produced by enlarging or reducing the original shape.

Introduction to scale factor (enlargement and reduction).

scale factor is a number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity.  Scale factors make each of the sides of a shape (two-dimensional figure) or solid (three-dimensional figure) bigger by a certain amount.


If two polygons are similar, their corresponding sides and perimeters are all in the same ratio.


The ratio of areas of two similar figures is the square of the scale factor.


The ratio of volumes of two similar figures is the cube of the scale factor.